LILIA NEWMAN

Evaluations

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1. Early Intervention (EI):

This is the process of assessing if the infant, toddlers and their families qualify for the support due to a child being at risk for, a developmental delay, disability, or health condition that may affect typical speech, language and feeding development and learning. The goal of EI is to lessen the effects of a disability or delay by addressing identified needs of young children across developmental areas: Cognitive development, Communication development, Physical Development including Hearing and Social or Emotional development. The earlier that services are delivered, the more likely children are to develop effective communication, language, and swallowing skills and achieve successful learning outcomes (Guralnick, 2011).

How Parents Identify the Early Signs of Delay or Disorder:

Children develop at their own rate. Some children walk and talk early. Others take longer. Most children learn skills within an age range, such as between 12 and 18 months. A child who takes longer to learn a skill may have a problem. It is important that you know what to expect. Below are some signs of speech, language, and hearing problems. You’ll see the expected age range next to each skill.

Signs of Language Disorders:

Language is made up of the words we use to share ideas and get what we want. Language includes speaking, understanding, reading, and writing. A child with a language disorder may have trouble with one or more of these skills. Signs of language problems include:

Birth to 3 months: Not smiling or playing with others
4 to 7 months: Not babbling
7 to 12 months: Making only a few sounds. Not using gestures, like waving or pointing
7 months to 2 years: Not understanding what others say
12 to 18 months: Saying only a few words
1½ to 2 years: Not putting two words together
2 years: Saying fewer than 50 words
2 to 3 years: Having trouble playing and talking with other children
2½ to 3 years: Having problems with early reading and writing. For example, your child may not like to draw or look at books

How does an evaluation with Lilia Newman help?

 It will help in identifying the early signs of a language delay or disorder and develop an individualized plan of treatment for language development. Recommendation to parents will always be included.

 

Signs of Sound Disorders:

Speech is how we say sounds and words. It is normal for young children to say some sounds the wrong way. Some sounds do not develop until a child is 4, 5, or 6 years old. Signs of a speech sound disorder in young children include:

1-2 years: Not saying p, b, m, h, and w the right way in words most of the time
2-3 years: Not saying k, g, f, t, d, and n the right way in words most of the time. Being hard to understand, even to people who know the child well.

How does an evaluation with Lilia Newman help?

 By helping in the identification of early signs of a speech delay or disorder and developing an individualized plan of treatment for speech development. Recommendations to parents will always be included.

Signs of Hearing Loss

Some children have a hearing loss at birth. Others lose their hearing as they get older. Some signs that your child may have a hearing loss include:

Birth to 1 year: Not paying attention to sounds
7 months to 1 year: Not responding when you call her name
1 to 2 years: Not following simple directions
Birth to 3 years: Having speech and language delays</td

How does an evaluation with Lilia help?

 By helping in the identification of early signs of hearing problems and making recommendations for further audiological testing. It will also help in developing an individualized plan of treatment to address hearing perception and the relationship with speech-language production. Recommendations to parents will always be included.

 

 

2. Preschool Speech and Language Evaluation:

An assessment is done by using a variety of measures and activities, including both standardized and non-standardized measures, as well as formal and informal assessment tools. An assessment battery typically includes the following procedures and data sources:

  • Norm-referenced tests: provide information about a child’s overall language skills (vocabulary, grammar and pragmatics) compared with those of children the same age,
  • Criterion-referenced tests and developmental scales: provide information about a child’s speech-language behaviors compared with a fixed set of predetermined criteria or speech-language developmental milestones,
  • Parent-completed tools and observations: gather information from parents based on observations of their child’s communicative behaviors in naturalistic environments,
  • Play based assessment: uses play as the context for observation and documentation of the child’s cognitive and linguistic behaviors,
  • Routines-based assessment: provides descriptions of a child’s participation in family-identified routines and activities,
  • Authentic assessment: gathers information about the functional behavior of the child in typical/natural settings from all those who interact with him or her on a regular basis,
  • Dynamic assessment: is used as a means to determine what the child can do alone versus with a facilitator (e.g., adult or other child)

What should my child be able to do between 3 to 4 years of age?

Hearing and Understanding

  • Responds when you call from another room.
  • Understands words for some colors, like red, blue, and green.
  • Understands words for some shapes, like circle and square.
  • Understands words for family, like brother, grandmother, and aunt.

Talking

  • Answers simple who, what, and where questions.
  • Says rhyming words, like hat-cat.
  • Uses pronouns, like I, you, me, we, and they.
  • Uses some plural words, like toys, birds, and buses.
  • Most people understand what your child says.
  • Asks when and how questions.
  • Puts 4 words together. May make some mistakes, like “I goed to school.”
  • Talks about what happened during the day. Uses about 4 sentences at a time.

How does an evaluation with Lilia and one of her team members help?

 By helping in the identification of a possible language delay or language disorder and by creating an individualized plan of treatment to address specific goals for each child for the speech, receptive and expressive language delays.

 

What should my child be able to do between 4 to 5 years of age?

Hearing and Understanding

  • Understands words for order, like first, next, and last.
  • Understands words for time, like yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
  • Follows longer directions, like “Put your pajamas on, brush your teeth, and then pick out a book.”
  • Follows classroom directions, like “Draw a circle on your paper around something you eat.”
  • Hears and understands most of what she hears at home and in school.

Talking

  • Says all speech sounds in words. May make mistakes on sounds that are harder to say, like l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, and th.
  • Responds to “What did you say?”
  • Talks without repeating sounds or words most of the time.
  • Names letters and numbers.
  • Uses sentences that have more than 1 action word, like jump, play, and get.
  • May make some mistakes, like “Zach gots 2 video games, but I got one.”
  • Tells a short story.
  • Keeps a conversation going.
  • Talks in different ways, depending on the listener and place. Your child may use short sentences with younger children. He may talk louder outside than inside.

How does an evaluation with Lilia and one of her team members help?

 By helping in the identification of a possible language delay or language disorder and by creating a plan of treatment to address individual goals for each child for the speech, receptive and expressive language delays.

 

 

3. School Age Speech and Language Evaluation:

Speech and Language evaluations at school age children will also involve the assessment of:

Reading:

  • Reading decoding: the ability to transform orthographic patterns of alphabetic letters into phonological patterns of a corresponding spoken word
  • Word recognition: the ability to identify words when reading, either through word decoding or sight word identification (automatic recognition of word as a whole without using strategies to decode)
  • Reading fluency: the ability to recognize and read words accurately, smoothly, and quickly, usually in context)
  • Reading comprehension: the ability to understand the meaning of written text

Writing:

  • Writing process: the ability to plan (i.e., “pre-writing”), organize, draft, reflect on, revise, and edit written text; the ability to address specific audience needs and convey the purpose of the text (e.g., persuasion)
  • Written product: the end product of the writing process; it can be examined at the word level (e.g., word choice and spelling), sentence level (e.g., grammar and complexity), and text level (e.g., discourse structure, use of cohesive devices and coherence). The written product can also be described in terms of writing conventions (e.g., capitalization and punctuation), communication functions (e.g., to inform, to persuade), organizational structure (e.g., chronological, sequential, compare and contrast), and effectiveness in meeting the information needs of the audience (Nelson, 2014a; Puranik, Lombardino, & Altmann, 2007; Scott & Windsor, 2000).

Spelling:

  • The ability to segment words into phonemes and map those phonemes onto graphemes (letters or letter combinations) in an acceptable sequence in written form. Words may be spelled “regularly,” which means that each grapheme is associated with a corresponding phoneme (e.g., cat), or ” irregularly,” such that not all graphemes in a word are represented by one phoneme (e.g., right). However, irregularly spelled words may have predictable features based on their morphological makeup.

How does an evaluation with Lilia and one of her team members help?

 By identifying if there is an underlying language difficulty to the reading comprehension, reading skills writing as well as spelling problems.

 

Signs of Stuttering:

Most of us pause or repeat a sound or word when we speak. When this happens a lot, the person may stutter. Young children may stutter for a little while. This is normal and will go away over time. Signs that stuttering might not stop include:

2½-3 years:
Having a lot of trouble saying sounds or words

  • Repeating the first sounds of words, like “b-b-b-ball” for “ball”
  • Pausing a lot while talking
  • Stretching sounds out, like “fffffarm” for “farm”

How does an evaluation with Lilia and one of her team members help?

 By determining if there is a frequency of dysfluency and severity that requires treatment and by making all the recommendations to the parents of "Do"s and "Don't"s.

 

Sign of Voice Disorders

We use our voice to make sounds. Our voice can change when we use it the wrong way. We can lose our voice when we are sick or after talking or yelling a lot. Signs that your child may have a voice disorder include:

  • Having a hoarse, scratchy, or breathy voice.
  • Sounding nasal, or like he talks through his nose.

How does an evaluation with Lilia and one of her team members help?

 It helps to determine if there is a voice quality problem that require treatment. Children will receive recommendations of the "Do"s and "Don't"s with voice use.

 

Contact Lilia for an assessment for your child.

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